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# CrystalFieldMagnetisation¶

## Description¶

This function calculates the crystal field (molar) magnetic moment as a function of applied magnetic field in a specified direction, in either atomic ($$\mu_B/$$/ion), SI (Am2/mol) or cgs (erg/Gauss/mol == emu/mol) units. If using cgs units, the magnetic field ($$x$$-axis) is expected to be in Gauss. If using SI or atomic units, the field should be given in Tesla.

Strictly, to obtain the magnetisation, one should divide by the molar volume of the material.

## Theory¶

The function calculates the expectation value of the magnetic moment operator $$\mathbf{\mu} = g_J \mu_B \mathbf{J}$$:

$M(B) = \frac{1}{Z} \sum_n \langle V_n(H) | g_J \mu_B \mathbf{J} | V_n(H) \rangle \exp(-\beta E_n(H))$

where $$B$$ is the magnetic field in Tesla, $$g_J$$ is the Landé g-factor, $$\mu_B$$ is the Bohr magneton. The moment operator is defined as $$\mathbf{J} = \hat{J}_x B_x + \hat{J}_y B_y + \hat{J}_z B_z$$ where $$\hat{J}_x$$, $$\hat{J}_y$$, and $$\hat{J}_z$$ are the angular momentum operators in Cartesian coordinates, with $$z$$ defined to be along the quantisation axis of the crystal field (which is usually defined to be the highest symmetry rotation axis). $$B_x$$, $$B_y$$, and $$B_z$$ are the components of the unit vector pointing in the direction of the applied magnetic field in this coordinate system. $$V_n(B)$$ and $$E_n(B)$$ are the nth eigenvector and eigenvalue (wavefunction and energy) obtained by diagonalising the Hamiltonian:

$\mathcal{H} = \mathcal{H}_{\mathrm{cf}} + \mathcal{H}_{\mathrm{Zeeman}} = \sum_{k,q} B_k^q \hat{O}_k^q - g_J \mu_B \mathbf{J}\cdot\mathbf{B}$

where in this case the magnetic field $$\mathbf{B}$$ is not normalised. Finally, $$\beta = 1/(k_B T)$$ with $$k_B$$ the Boltzmann constant and $$T$$ the temperature, and $$Z$$ is the partition sum $$Z = \sum_n \exp(-\beta E_n(H))$$.

## Example¶

Here is an example of how to fit crystal field parameters to a magnetisation measurement. All parameters disallowed by symmetry are fixed automatically. The “data” here is generated from the function itself.

The x-axis is given in Tesla, and the magnetisation (y-axis) is in bohr magnetons per magnetic ion ($$\mu_B$$/ion).

import numpy as np

# Build a reference data set
fun = 'name=CrystalFieldMagnetisation,Ion=Ce,B20=0.37737,B22=0.039770,B40=-0.031787,B42=-0.11611,B44=-0.12544,'
fun += 'Temperature=10'

# This creates a (empty) workspace to use with EvaluateFunction
x = np.linspace(0, 30, 300)
y = x * 0
e = y + 1
ws = CreateWorkspace(x, y, e)

# The calculated data will be in 'data', WorkspaceIndex=1
EvaluateFunction(fun, ws, OutputWorkspace='data')

# Change parameters slightly and fit to the reference data
fun = 'name=CrystalFieldMagnetisation,Ion=Ce,Symmetry=C2v,Temperature=10,B20=0.4,B22=0.04,B40=-0.03,B42=-0.1,B44=-0.1,'
fun += 'ties=(B60=0,B62=0,B64=0,B66=0,BmolX=0,BmolY=0,BmolZ=0,BextX=0,BextY=0,BextZ=0)'

# (set MaxIterations=0 to see the starting point)
Fit(fun, 'data', WorkspaceIndex=1, Output='fit',MaxIterations=100, CostFunction='Unweighted least squares')
# Using Unweighted least squares fit because the data has no errors.

# Extract fitted parameters
parws = mtd['fit_Parameters']
for i in range(parws.rowCount()):
row = parws.row(i)
if row['Value'] != 0:
print("%7s = % 7.5g" % (row['Name'], row['Value']))


Output (the numbers you see on your machine may vary):

    B20 =  0.39541
B22 =  0.030001
B40 = -0.029841
B42 = -0.11611
B44 = -0.1481
Cost function value =  1.2987e-14


## Attributes (non-fitting parameters)¶

Name

Type

Default

Description

Ion

String

Mandatory

An element name for a rare earth ion. Possible values are: Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb.

Symmetry

String

C1

A symbol for a symmetry group. Setting Symmetry automatically zeros and fixes all forbidden parameters. Possible values are: C1, Ci, C2, Cs, C2h, C2v, D2, D2h, C4, S4, C4h, D4, C4v, D2d, D4h, C3, S6, D3, C3v, D3d, C6, C3h, C6h, D6, C6v, D3h, D6h, T, Td, Th, O, Oh

Temperature

Double

1.0

Temperature in Kelvin of the measurement.

powder

Boolean

false

Whether to calculate the powder averaged magnetisation or not.

Hdir

Vector

(0.,0.,1.)

The direction of the applied field w.r.t. the crystal field parameters

Unit

String

‘bohr’

The desired units of the output, either: ‘bohr’ (muB/ion), ‘SI’ (Am^2/mol) or ‘cgs’ (erg/G/mol).

## Properties (fitting parameters)¶

Name

Default

Description

BmolX

0.0

The x-component of the molecular field.

BmolY

0.0

The y-component of the molecular field.

BmolZ

0.0

The z-component of the molecular field.

BextX

0.0

The x-component of the external field.

BextY

0.0

The y-component of the external field.

BextZ

0.0

The z-component of the external field.

B20

0.0

Real part of the B20 field parameter.

B21

0.0

Real part of the B21 field parameter.

B22

0.0

Real part of the B22 field parameter.

B40

0.0

Real part of the B40 field parameter.

B41

0.0

Real part of the B41 field parameter.

B42

0.0

Real part of the B42 field parameter.

B43

0.0

Real part of the B43 field parameter.

B44

0.0

Real part of the B44 field parameter.

B60

0.0

Real part of the B60 field parameter.

B61

0.0

Real part of the B61 field parameter.

B62

0.0

Real part of the B62 field parameter.

B63

0.0

Real part of the B63 field parameter.

B64

0.0

Real part of the B64 field parameter.

B65

0.0

Real part of the B65 field parameter.

B66

0.0

Real part of the B66 field parameter.

IB21

0.0

Imaginary part of the B21 field parameter.

IB22

0.0

Imaginary part of the B22 field parameter.

IB41

0.0

Imaginary part of the B41 field parameter.

IB42

0.0

Imaginary part of the B42 field parameter.

IB43

0.0

Imaginary part of the B43 field parameter.

IB44

0.0

Imaginary part of the B44 field parameter.

IB61

0.0

Imaginary part of the B61 field parameter.

IB62

0.0

Imaginary part of the B62 field parameter.

IB63

0.0

Imaginary part of the B63 field parameter.

IB64

0.0

Imaginary part of the B64 field parameter.

IB65

0.0

Imaginary part of the B65 field parameter.

IB66

0.0

Imaginary part of the B66 field parameter.

Categories: FitFunctions | General